A man is screened for diabetic retinopathy during 飞行眼科医院 project in Barbados

糖尿病性视网膜病变: Causes, Symptoms, 治疗

据估计,糖尿病视网膜病变影响着三分之一的糖尿病患者,是35-50岁成年人失明和视力下降的主要原因. But what is diabetic retinopathy, what causes it and what can be done to treat or prevent it?

阅读以下内容,了解BG真人眼科团队是如何解决一个增长最快的可避免失明的原因之一.

什么是糖尿病视网膜病变?

视网膜, 在眼睛的后面, is what creates the picture for our brain and has many small blood vessels. When blood sugar is too high caused by diabetes, these small blood vessels can break and leak blood or fluid into the eye and damage the retina.

它还会导致新的血管生长,损伤或脱离视网膜,导致视力丧失.

视网膜 is responsible for clear central vision. 液体导致黄斑——视网膜上允许BG真人看到颜色和细节的部分——膨胀,导致视力模糊.

如果不及时治疗, diabetic retinopathy can lead to a gradual loss of vision or blindness that cannot be reversed.

图显示正常眼睛与. an eye affected by Diabetic Retnopathy

正常的视网膜和. retina affected by diabetic retinopathy

糖尿病性视网膜病变的原因

Excessive blood sugar levels can cause irreversible damage to vessels in the retina.

每一个患有各种类型糖尿病的人(全球4.22亿人)都有患上这种疾病的风险,而且可能随着时间的推移而失明.

Other risk factors for the development of diabetic retinopathy are:

  • 高血压
  • 高胆固醇

大约每3名糖尿病患者中就有1人患有某种程度的糖尿病性视网膜病变,每10人中就有1人会发展为威胁视力的疾病.

- International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness

糖尿病性视网膜病变症状

At early stages, there are no symptoms. At later stages, people affected can have:

  • 浮动点
  • 视力模糊
  • 复视
  • 完全丧失视力

Slideshow: Images show vision loss caused by diabetic retinopathy over time

What Are the 4 Stages of 糖尿病性视网膜病变?

The four stages of diabetic retinopathy are:

轻度Nonproliferative视网膜病变

In the earliest stage of the disease, tiny bulges in the retina’s blood vessels (microaneurysms) can leak fluid into the retina. This can also lead to swelling in the macula causing blurred vision. Symptoms at this stage are usually mild or non-existent.

Moderate Nonproliferative Retinopathy

During this stage, blood vessels in the retina swell and may become blocked. 这可能会导致糖尿病性黄斑水肿(DME),这是一种液体积聚在视网膜的黄斑区域,导致视力改变或视力丧失.

Severe Nonproliferative Retinopathy

At this stage, an increasing number of blood vessels in the eye become blocked. As a result, the retina is signaled to grow new blood vessels. 如果血管完全关闭,这可能会导致视力模糊和黑斑(飞蚊)。

Proliferative 糖尿病性视网膜病变

在最后阶段, 视网膜缺氧,新的血管在视网膜内生长并进入玻璃体凝胶——充满眼睛的液体. As these blood vessels are delicate, they may begin to leak and bleed.

疤痕组织可能会形成,导致视网膜脱离,视网膜会从下面的组织脱离. Retinal detachment may cause spotty vision, flashes of lights or severe vision loss.

预防糖尿病视网膜病变:

健康的生活方式

保持血糖, 控制好胆固醇和血压水平,通过正确的饮食和定期锻炼保持平衡的生活方式, can lower the risk of developing the condition or slow its progression.

糖尿病眼健康检查

对于糖尿病患者来说, 通过定期的眼科检查,及早发现和诊断,可预防糖尿病性视网膜病变致盲 98% 的情况下. 一旦确诊, it is essential that treatment begins as quickly as possible to prevent damage to the eye.

While diabetic retinopathy cannot be fully cured, 已经建立了有效的治疗方法来保护视力,并大大减少进一步损害和视力丧失的风险.

治疗糖尿病性视网膜病变:

Intravitreal注射

医生建议将药物(抗- vegf)注射到眼睛中,通过阻断身体发出的生成新血管的生长信号,来帮助阻止新血管的生长.

激光疗法

在晚期糖尿病视网膜病变患者中,激光治疗是保持视力和降低进一步视力丧失风险的有效治疗方法.

焦激光疗法 stops or slows blood and fluid leaking in the eye. During the procedure, leaks from abnormal blood vessels are treated with laser burns.

Scatter laser (panretinal photocoagulation) laser burns causes the abnormal new blood vessels to shrink and scar.

眼科手术

当糖尿病视网膜病变发展到一定程度,仅靠激光治疗无法清除眼睛内的血液和瘢痕组织时,就需要手术治疗(玻璃体切除手术).

How BG真人 Is Tackling 糖尿病性视网膜病变

With an explosion of diabetes on the horizon, 要解决日益严重的糖尿病视网膜病变的威胁,BG真人还有很多工作要做. A 'business as usual approach' will simply not work. BG真人必须采取更多的孤立干预措施,并创造一种集体和综合的办法. BG真人正通过以下举措努力消除这一增长最快的致盲原因:

发展基础设施

In high risk countries such as Guyana, 秘鲁, 中国, Bangladesh and Vietnam for example, BG真人正在建立早期检测糖尿病视网膜病变所需的基础设施,并将眼科筛查纳入糖尿病患者的整体护理.

与合作伙伴合作

BG真人正在与政府合作, 非政府组织和高风险国家的主要卫生合作伙伴为糖尿病和视力下降患者建立和加强现有的眼科护理. 通过与糖尿病项目合作,BG真人可以将糖尿病视网膜病变整合到糖尿病治疗中.

培训和创新

BG真人正在寻找方法,通过培训糖尿病流行地区的非医务人员,改善糖尿病视网膜病变的筛查和早期检测.

与社区合作

在社区层面, BG真人正在通过培训和教育人们提高对糖尿病和失明风险的认识,增加对高质量眼科护理的需求.

支持全球战略

Together with leading non-government agencies across the diabetes and eye care sectors, BG真人帮助制定了一项全球糖尿病视网膜病变战略,并率先采取最佳实践方法来遏制这一不断上升的流行病.

捐赠

Can you help help fight 糖尿病性视网膜病变 in communities around the world?

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